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Ayatollah Khomeini och den iranska revolutionen Suezkrisen och sexdagarskriget The speed and ease of Israel's victory would later lead to a dangerous overconfidence within the ranks of the Israel Defense Forces IDF , contributing to initial Arab successes in the subsequent Yom Kippur War , although ultimately Israeli forces were successful and defeated the Arab militaries.

The displacement of civilian populations resulting from the war would have long-term consequences, as , Palestinians fled the West Bank and about , Syrians left the Golan Heights.

Across the Arab world, Jewish minority communities fled or were expelled , with refugees going mainly to Israel or Europe. In early November , Syria signed a mutual defence agreement with Egypt.

President Lyndon Johnson commented: [47]. If a single act of folly was more responsible for this explosion than any other, it was the arbitrary and dangerous announced decision that the Straits of Tiran would be closed.

The right of innocent, maritime passage must be preserved for all nations. On 30 May, Jordan and Egypt signed a defence pact.

The following day, at Jordan's invitation, the Iraqi army began deploying troops and armoured units in Jordan. On 1 June, Israel formed a National Unity Government by widening its cabinet, and on 4 June the decision was made to go to war.

Before the war, Israeli pilots and ground crews had trained extensively in rapid refitting of aircraft returning from sorties , enabling a single aircraft to sortie up to four times a day as opposed to the norm in Arab air forces of one or two sorties per day.

This enabled the Israeli Air Force IAF to send several attack waves against Egyptian airfields on the first day of the war, overwhelming the Egyptian Air Force, and allowed it to knock out other Arab air forces on the same day.

Pilots were extensively schooled about their targets, and were forced to memorise every single detail, and rehearsed the operation multiple times on dummy runways in total secrecy.

The Egyptians had constructed fortified defences in the Sinai. These designs were based on the assumption that an attack would come along the few roads leading through the desert, rather than through the difficult desert terrain.

The Israelis chose not to risk attacking the Egyptian defences head-on, and instead surprised them from an unexpected direction. James Reston, writing in The New York Times on 23 May , noted, "In discipline, training, morale, equipment and general competence his [Nasser's] army and the other Arab forces, without the direct assistance of the Soviet Union, are no match for the Israelis.

Even with 50, troops and the best of his generals and air force in Yemen, he has not been able to work his way in that small and primitive country, and even his effort to help the Congo rebels was a flop.

On the eve of the war, Israel believed it could win a war in 3—4 days. The United States estimated Israel would need 7—10 days to win, with British estimates supporting the U.

The Israeli army had a total strength, including reservists, of ,, though this number could not be sustained during a long conflict, as the reservists were vital to civilian life.

Against Jordan's forces on the West Bank , Israel deployed about 40, troops and tanks eight brigades. The first two were permanently stationed near Jerusalem and were the Jerusalem Brigade and the mechanized Harel Brigade.

Mordechai Gur 's 55th Paratroopers Brigade was summoned from the Sinai front. The 10th Armored Brigade was stationed north of the West Bank.

On the eve of the war, Egypt massed approximately , of its , troops in the Sinai, including all seven of its divisions four infantry, two armoured and one mechanized , four independent infantry brigades and four independent armoured brigades.

Over a third of these soldiers were veterans of Egypt's continuing intervention into the North Yemen Civil War and another third were reservists.

These forces had tanks, 1, APCs, and more than 1, artillery pieces. Syria's army had a total strength of 75, and was deployed along the border with Israel.

Lesch wrote that "One would be hard-pressed to find a military less prepared for war with a clearly superior foe", since Syria's army had been decimated in the months and years prior through coups and attempted coups that had resulted in a series of purges, fracturings and uprisings within the armed forces.

The Jordanian Armed Forces included 11 brigades, totalling 55, troops. They possessed sizable numbers of M APCs and were equipped with some modern Western tanks, of which were U.

M48 Pattons. The Jordanian Army was a long-term-service, professional army, relatively well-equipped and well-trained.

Israeli post-war briefings said that the Jordanian staff acted professionally, but was always left "half a step" behind by the Israeli moves.

The Arab air forces were reinforced by some aircraft from Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Kuwait, and Saudi Arabia to make up for the massive losses suffered on the first day of the war.

They were also aided by volunteer pilots from the Pakistan Air Force acting in an independent capacity. PAF pilots shot down several Israeli planes.

With the exception of Jordan, the Arabs relied principally on Soviet weaponry. Jordan's army was equipped with American weaponry, and its air force was composed of British aircraft.

Egypt had by far the largest and the most modern of all the Arab air forces, consisting of about combat aircraft, [62] all of them Soviet-built and with a heavy quota of top-of-the-line MiGs.

Of particular concern to the Israelis were the 30 Tu "Badger" medium bombers , capable of inflicting heavy damage on Israeli military and civilian centers.

Israeli weapons were mainly of Western origin. Its air force was composed principally of French aircraft, while its armoured units were mostly of British and American design and manufacture.

Some infantry weapons, including the ubiquitous Uzi , were of Israeli origin. The first and most critical move of the conflict was a surprise Israeli attack on the Egyptian Air Force.

Initially, both Egypt and Israel announced that they had been attacked by the other country. All but 12 of its nearly operational jets [67] launched a mass attack against Egypt's airfields.

Most of the Israeli warplanes headed out over the Mediterranean Sea , flying low to avoid radar detection, before turning toward Egypt.

Others flew over the Red Sea. Meanwhile, the Egyptians hindered their own defence by effectively shutting down their entire air defence system: they were worried that rebel Egyptian forces would shoot down the plane carrying Field Marshal Abdel Hakim Amer and Lt-Gen.

Sidqi Mahmoud, who were en route from al Maza to Bir Tamada in the Sinai to meet the commanders of the troops stationed there.

In any event, it did not make a great deal of difference as the Israeli pilots came in below Egyptian radar cover and well below the lowest point at which its SA-2 surface-to-air missile batteries could bring down an aircraft.

Although the powerful Jordanian radar facility at Ajloun detected waves of aircraft approaching Egypt and reported the code word for "war" up the Egyptian command chain, Egyptian command and communications problems prevented the warning from reaching the targeted airfields.

The runway at the Arish airfield was spared, as the Israelis expected to turn it into a military airport for their transports after the war. Surviving aircraft were taken out by later attack waves.

The operation was more successful than expected, catching the Egyptians by surprise and destroying virtually all of the Egyptian Air Force on the ground, with few Israeli losses.

Only four unarmed Egyptian training flights were in the air when the strike began. Among the Egyptian planes lost were all 30 Tu bombers, 27 out of 40 Il bombers, 12 Su-7 fighter-bombers, over 90 MiGs , 20 MiGs , 25 MiG fighters, and around 32 assorted transport planes and helicopters.

In addition, Egyptian radars and SAM missiles were also attacked and destroyed. The Israelis lost 19 planes, including two destroyed in air-to-air combat and 13 downed by anti-aircraft artillery.

The attack guaranteed Israeli air supremacy for the rest of the war. Attacks on other Arab air forces by Israel took place later in the day as hostilities broke out on other fronts.

The large numbers of Arab aircraft claimed destroyed by Israel on that day were at first regarded as "greatly exaggerated" by the Western press.

However, the fact that the Egyptian Air Force, along with other Arab air forces attacked by Israel, made practically no appearance for the remaining days of the conflict proved that the numbers were most likely authentic.

Throughout the war, Israeli aircraft continued strafing Arab airfield runways to prevent their return to usability.

Meanwhile, Egyptian state-run radio had reported an Egyptian victory, falsely claiming that 70 Israeli planes had been downed on the first day of fighting.

The Egyptian forces consisted of seven divisions : four armoured , two infantry , and one mechanized infantry. Overall, Egypt had around , troops and — tanks in the Sinai, backed by 1, APCs and 1, artillery pieces.

Israeli forces concentrated on the border with Egypt included six armoured brigades , one infantry brigade, one mechanized infantry brigade, three paratrooper brigades, giving a total of around 70, men and tanks, who were organized in three armoured divisions.

They had massed on the border the night before the war, camouflaging themselves and observing radio silence before being ordered to advance.

The Israeli plan was to surprise the Egyptian forces in both timing the attack exactly coinciding with the IAF strike on Egyptian airfields , location attacking via northern and central Sinai routes, as opposed to the Egyptian expectations of a repeat of the war, when the IDF attacked via the central and southern routes and method using a combined-force flanking approach, rather than direct tank assaults.

They advanced swiftly, holding fire to prolong the element of surprise. Tal's forces assaulted the "Rafah Gap", a seven-mile stretch containing the shortest of three main routes through the Sinai towards El-Qantarah el-Sharqiyya and the Suez Canal.

The Egyptians had four divisions in the area, backed by minefields, pillboxes, underground bunkers, hidden gun emplacements and trenches.

The terrain on either side of the route was impassable. The Israeli plan was to hit the Egyptians at selected key points with concentrated armour. The Israeli plan called for the 7th Brigade to outflank Khan Yunis from the north and the 60th Armored Brigade under Colonel Menachem Aviram would advance from the south.

The two brigades would link up and surround Khan Yunis, while the paratroopers would take Rafah. Gonen entrusted the breakthrough to a single battalion of his brigade.

Initially, the advance was met with light resistance, as Egyptian intelligence had concluded that it was a diversion for the main attack. However, as Gonen's lead battalion advanced, it suddenly came under intense fire and took heavy losses.

A second battalion was brought up, but was also pinned down. Meanwhile, the 60th Brigade became bogged down in the sand, while the paratroopers had trouble navigating through the dunes.

The Israelis continued to press their attack, and despite heavy losses, cleared the Egyptian positions and reached the Khan Yunis railway junction in little over four hours.

Gonen's brigade then advanced nine miles to Rafah in twin columns. Rafah itself was circumvented, and the Israelis attacked Sheikh Zuweid , eight miles to the southwest, which was defended by two brigades.

Though inferior in numbers and equipment, the Egyptians were deeply entrenched and camouflaged. The Israelis were pinned down by fierce Egyptian resistance, and called in air and artillery support to enable their lead elements to advance.

Many Egyptians abandoned their positions after their commander and several of his staff were killed. The Israelis broke through with tank-led assaults.

However, Aviram's forces misjudged the Egyptians' flank, and were pinned between strongholds before they were extracted after several hours.

By nightfall, the Israelis had finished mopping up resistance. Israeli forces had taken significant losses, with Colonel Gonen later telling reporters that "we left many of our dead soldiers in Rafah, and many burnt-out tanks.

On 5 June, with the road open, Israeli forces continued advancing towards Arish. Already by late afternoon, elements of the 79th Armored Battalion had charged through the seven-mile long Jiradi defile, a narrow pass defended by well-emplaced troops of the Egyptian th Infantry Brigade.

In fierce fighting, which saw the pass change hands several times, the Israelis charged through the position.

The Egyptians suffered heavy casualties and tank losses, while Israeli losses stood at 66 dead, 93 wounded and 28 tanks.

Emerging at the western end, Israeli forces advanced to the outskirts of Arish. The following day, 6 June, the Israeli forces on the outskirts of Arish were reinforced by the 7th Brigade, which fought its way through the Jiradi pass.

Company commander Yossi Peled recounted that "Al-Arish was totally quiet, desolate. Suddenly, the city turned into a madhouse. Shots came at us from every alley, every corner, every window and house.

The Egyptians fired from the rooftops, from balconies and windows. They dropped grenades into our half-tracks and blocked the streets with trucks.

Our men threw the grenades back and crushed the trucks with their tanks. Yoffe's attack allowed Tal to complete the capture of the Jiradi defile, Khan Yunis.

All of them were taken after fierce fighting. Gonen subsequently dispatched a force of tanks, infantry and engineers under Colonel Yisrael Granit to continue down the Mediterranean coast towards the Suez Canal , while a second force led by Gonen himself turned south and captured Bir Lahfan and Jabal Libni.

Two armoured brigades in the meantime, under Avraham Yoffe, slipped across the border through sandy wastes that Egypt had left undefended because they were considered impassable.

Simultaneously, Sharon's tanks from the west were to engage Egyptian forces on Um-Katef ridge and block any reinforcements.

Israeli infantry would clear the three trenches, while heliborne paratroopers would land behind Egyptian lines and silence their artillery.

An armoured thrust would be made at al-Qusmaya to unnerve and isolate its garrison. An Israeli jet was downed by anti-aircraft fire, and Sharon's forces came under heavy shelling as they advanced from the north and west.

The Israeli advance, which had to cope with extensive minefields, took a large number of casualties.

A column of Israeli tanks managed to penetrate the northern flank of Abu Ageila, and by dusk, all units were in position. These movements were unobserved by the Egyptians, who were preoccupied with Israeli probes against their perimeter.

As night fell, the Israeli assault troops lit flashlights, each battalion a different color, to prevent friendly fire incidents.

Israeli infantrymen assaulted the triple line of trenches in the east. To the west, paratroopers commanded by Colonel Danny Matt landed behind Egyptian lines, though half the helicopters got lost and never found the battlefield, while others were unable to land due to mortar fire.

Egyptian reinforcements from Jabal Libni advanced towards Um-Katef to counterattack, but failed to reach their objective, being subjected to heavy air attacks and encountering Israeli lodgements on the roads.

Egyptian commanders then called in artillery attacks on their own positions. The Israelis accomplished and sometimes exceeded their overall plan, and had largely succeeded by the following day.

The Egyptians suffered about 2, casualties, while the Israelis lost 42 dead and wounded. Yoffe's attack allowed Sharon to complete the capture of the Um-Katef, after fierce fighting.

The main thrust at Um-Katef was stalled due to mines and craters. The battle ended in an Israeli victory, with 40 Egyptian and 19 Israeli tanks destroyed.

Meanwhile, Israeli infantry finished clearing out the Egyptian trenches, with Israeli casualties standing at 14 dead and 41 wounded and Egyptian casualties at dead and taken prisoner.

Further south, on 5 June, the 8th Armored Brigade under Colonel Albert Mandler , initially positioned as a ruse to draw off Egyptian forces from the real invasion routes, attacked the fortified bunkers at Kuntilla, a strategically valuable position whose capture would enable Mandler to block reinforcements from reaching Um-Katef and to join Sharon's upcoming attack on Nakhl.

The defending Egyptian battalion, outnumbered and outgunned, fiercely resisted the attack, hitting a number of Israeli tanks.

However, most of the defenders were killed, and only three Egyptian tanks, one of them damaged, survived. By nightfall, Mendler's forces had taken Kuntilla.

Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Dayan had expressly forbidden entry into the area. The force was immediately met with heavy artillery fire and fierce resistance from Palestinian forces and remnants of the Egyptian forces from Rafah.

By sunset, the Israelis had taken the strategically vital Ali Muntar ridge, overlooking Gaza City , but were beaten back from the city itself.

Twelve members of UNEF were also killed. The fighting was fierce, and accounted for nearly half of all Israeli casualties on the southern front.

However, Gaza rapidly fell to the Israelis. Meanwhile, on 6 June, two Israeli reserve brigades under Yoffe, each equipped with tanks, penetrated the Sinai south of Tal's division and north of Sharon's, capturing the road junctions of Abu Ageila, Bir Lahfan, and Arish, taking all of them before midnight.

Two Egyptian armoured brigades counterattacked, and a fierce battle took place until the following morning. The Egyptians were beaten back by fierce resistance coupled with airstrikes, sustaining heavy tank losses.

They fled west towards Jabal Libni. During the ground fighting, remnants of the Egyptian Air Force attacked Israeli ground forces, but took losses from the Israeli Air Force and from Israeli anti-aircraft units.

Throughout the last four days, Egyptian aircraft flew sorties against Israeli units in the Sinai.

Many of the Egyptian units remained intact and could have tried to prevent the Israelis from reaching the Suez Canal , or engaged in combat in the attempt to reach the canal.

This order effectively meant the defeat of Egypt. Meanwhile, President Nasser , having learned of the results of the Israeli air strikes, decided together with Field Marshal Amer to order a general retreat from the Sinai within 24 hours.

No detailed instructions were given concerning the manner and sequence of withdrawal. As Egyptian columns retreated, Israeli aircraft and artillery attacked them.

Israeli jets used napalm bombs during their sorties. The attacks destroyed hundreds of vehicles and caused heavy casualties. At Jabal Libni, retreating Egyptian soldiers were fired upon by their own artillery.

At Bir Gafgafa, the Egyptians fiercely resisted advancing Israeli forces, knocking out three tanks and eight half-tracks, and killing 20 soldiers.

Due to the Egyptians' retreat, the Israeli High Command decided not to pursue the Egyptian units but rather to bypass and destroy them in the mountainous passes of West Sinai.

Therefore, in the following two days 6 and 7 June , all three Israeli divisions Sharon and Tal were reinforced by an armoured brigade each rushed westwards and reached the passes.

Sharon's division first went southward then westward, via An-Nakhl , to Mitla Pass with air support. It was joined there by parts of Yoffe's division, while its other units blocked the Gidi Pass.

These passes became killing grounds for the Egyptians, who ran right into waiting Israeli positions and suffered heavy losses in both soldiers and vehicles.

According to Egyptian diplomat Mahmoud Riad , 10, men were killed in one day alone, and many others died from hunger and thirst.

Tal's units stopped at various points to the length of the Suez Canal. Israel's blocking action was partially successful.

Only the Gidi pass was captured before the Egyptians approached it, but at other places, Egyptian units managed to pass through and cross the canal to safety.

Due to the haste of the Egyptian retreat, soldiers often abandoned weapons, military equipment, and hundreds of vehicles. Many Egyptian soldiers were cut off from their units had to walk about kilometers on foot before reaching the Suez Canal with limited supplies of food and water and were exposed to intense heat.

Thousands of soldiers died as a result. Many Egyptian soldiers chose instead to surrender to the Israelis. However, the Israelis eventually exceeded their capabilities to provide for prisoners.

As a result, they began directing soldiers towards the Suez Canal and only taking prisoner high-ranking officers, who were expected to be exchanged for captured Israeli pilots.

According to some accounts, during the Egyptian retreat from the Sinai, a unit of Soviet Marines based on a Soviet warship in Port Said at the time came ashore and attempted to cross the Suez Canal eastward.

The Soviet force was reportedly decimated by an Israeli air attack and lost 17 dead and 34 wounded. Among the wounded was the commander, Lt.

Victor Shevchenko. During the offensive, the Israeli Navy landed six combat divers from the Shayetet 13 naval commando unit to infiltrate Alexandria harbour.

The divers sank an Egyptian minesweeper before being taken prisoner. Shayetet 13 commandos also infiltrated into Port Said harbour, but found no ships there.

A planned commando raid against the Syrian Navy never materialized. Both Egyptian and Israeli warships made movements at sea to intimidate the other side throughout the war, but did not engage each other.

However, Israeli warships and aircraft did hunt for Egyptian submarines throughout the war. On 7 June, Israel began the conquest of Sharm el-Sheikh.

The Israeli Navy started the operation with a probe of Egyptian naval defenses. An aerial reconnaissance flight found that the area was less defended than originally thought.

There, the Israelis engaged in a pitched battle with the Egyptians and took the city, killing 20 Egyptian soldiers and taking 8 prisoner.

On 8 June, Israel completed the capture of the Sinai by sending infantry units to Ras Sudar on the western coast of the peninsula. Several tactical elements made the swift Israeli advance possible: first, the surprise attack that quickly gave the Israeli Air Force complete air superiority over the Egyptian Air Force ; second, the determined implementation of an innovative battle plan; third, the lack of coordination among Egyptian troops.

These factors would prove to be decisive elements on Israel's other fronts as well. King Hussein had given control of his army to Egypt in 1 June, on which date Egyptian General Riad arrived in Amman to take control of the Jordanian military.

Egyptian Field Marshal Amer used the confusion of the first hours of the conflict to send a cable to Amman that he was victorious; he claimed as evidence a radar sighting of a squadron of Israeli aircraft returning from bombing raids in Egypt, which he said was an Egyptian aircraft en route to attack Israel.

One of the Jordanian brigades stationed in the West Bank was sent to the Hebron area in order to link with the Egyptians.

The IDF's strategic plan was to remain on the defensive along the Jordanian front, to enable focus in the expected campaign against Egypt. Under the orders from General Narkis, the Israelis responded only with small-arms fire, firing in a flat trajectory to avoid hitting civilians, holy sites or the Old City.

The commanders of these batteries were instructed to lay a two-hour barrage against military and civilian settlements in central Israel.

Some shells hit the outskirts of Tel Aviv. The Jordanians initially targeted kibbutz Ramat Rachel in the south and Mount Scopus in the north, then ranged into the city center and outlying neighborhoods.

Military installations, the Prime Minister's Residence, and the Knesset compound were also targeted. Israeli civilian casualties totalled 20 dead and about 1, wounded.

Some buildings were damaged, including Hadassah Ein Kerem Hospital. The attack caused minimal material damage, hitting only a senior citizens' home and several chicken coops, but sixteen Israeli soldiers were killed, most of them when the Tupolev crashed.

When the Israeli cabinet convened to decide what to do, Yigal Allon and Menahem Begin argued that this was an opportunity to take the Old City of Jerusalem , but Eshkol decided to defer any decision until Moshe Dayan and Yitzhak Rabin could be consulted.

Dayan rejected multiple requests from Narkiss for permission to mount an infantry assault towards Mount Scopus.

However, Dayan sanctioned a number of more limited retaliatory actions. The Hawker Hunters were refueling at the time of the attack.

The Israeli aircraft attacked in two waves, the first of which cratered the runways and knocked out the control towers, and the second wave destroyed all 21 of Jordan's Hawker Hunter fighters, along with six transport aircraft and two helicopters.

One Israeli jet was shot down by ground fire. A Pakistani pilot stationed at the base, Saiful Azam , who was on loan to the Royal Jordanian Air Force as an advisor, shot down an Israeli fighter and a bomber during the raid.

The Jordanian radar facility at Ajloun was destroyed in an Israeli airstrike. Dozens of tanks were knocked out, and a convoy of 26 trucks carrying ammunition was destroyed.

In Jerusalem, Israel responded to Jordanian shelling with a missile strike that devastated Jordanian positions.

The Israelis used the L missile, a surface-to-surface missile developed jointly with France in secret.

A Jordanian battalion advanced up Government House ridge and dug in at the perimeter of Government House, the headquarters of the United Nations observers, [] [] [] and opened fire on Ramat Rachel, the Allenby Barracks and the Jewish section of Abu Tor with mortars and recoilless rifles.

UN observers fiercely protested the incursion into the neutral zone, and several manhandled a Jordanian machine gun out of Government House after the crew had set it up in a second-floor window.

After the Jordanians occupied Jabel Mukaber , an advance patrol was sent out and approached Ramat Rachel, where they came under fire from four civilians, including the wife of the director, who were armed with old Czech-made weapons.

The immediate Israeli response was an offensive to retake Government House and its ridge. Dreizin had two infantry companies and eight tanks under his command, several of which broke down or became stuck in the mud at Ramat Rachel, leaving three for the assault.

The Jordanians mounted fierce resistance, knocking out two tanks. The Israelis broke through the compound's western gate and began clearing the building with grenades, before General Odd Bull , commander of the UN observers, compelled the Israelis to hold their fire, telling them that the Jordanians had already fled.

The Israelis proceeded to take the Antenna Hill, directly behind Government House, and clear out a series of bunkers to the west and south.

The fighting, often conducted hand-to-hand, continued for nearly four hours before the surviving Jordanians fell back to trenches held by the Hittin Brigade, which were steadily overwhelmed.

By AM, the Jordanians had retreated to Bethlehem , having suffered about casualties. All but ten of Dreizin's soldiers were casualties, and Dreizin himself was wounded three times.

During the late afternoon of 5 June, the Israelis launched an offensive to encircle Jerusalem, which lasted into the following day.

During the night, they were supported by intense tank, artillery and mortar fire to soften up Jordanian positions.

Searchlights placed atop the Labor Federation building, then the tallest in Israeli Jerusalem, exposed and blinded the Jordanians. A combined force of tanks and paratroopers crossed no-man's land near the Mandelbaum Gate.

Gur's 66th paratroop battalion approached the fortified Police Academy. The Israelis used bangalore torpedoes to blast their way through barbed wire leading up to the position while exposed and under heavy fire.

With the aid of two tanks borrowed from the Jerusalem Brigade, they captured the Police Academy.

After receiving reinforcements, they moved up to attack Ammunition Hill. The Jordanian defenders, who were heavily dug-in, fiercely resisted the attack.

All of the Israeli officers except for two company commanders were killed, and the fighting was mostly led by individual soldiers. The fighting was conducted at close quarters in trenches and bunkers, and was often hand-to-hand.

The Israelis captured the position after four hours of heavy fighting. During the battle, 36 Israeli and 71 Jordanian soldiers were killed.

The 66th battalion subsequently drove east, and linked up with the Israeli enclave on Mount Scopus and its Hebrew University campus. Gur's other battalions, the 71st and 28th, captured the other Jordanian positions around the American Colony , despite being short on men and equipment and having come under a Jordanian mortar bombardment while waiting for the signal to advance.

At the same time, the IDF's 4th Brigade attacked the fortress at Latrun , which the Jordanians had abandoned due to heavy Israeli tank fire. The mechanized Harel Brigade attacked Har Adar , but seven tanks were knocked out by mines, forcing the infantry to mount an assault without armoured cover.

The Israeli soldiers advanced under heavy fire, jumping between stones to avoid mines. The fighting was conducted at close-quarters, often with knives and bayonets.

The Jordanians fell back after a battle that left two Israeli and eight Jordanian soldiers dead, and Israeli forces advanced through Beit Horon towards Ramallah , taking four fortified villages along the way.

By the evening, the brigade arrived in Ramallah. Meanwhile, Egyptian commandos stationed in the West Bank moved to attack Israeli airfields.

Led by Jordanian intelligence scouts, they crossed the border and began infiltrating through Israeli settlements towards Ramla and Hatzor.

They were soon detected and sought shelter in nearby fields, which the Israelis set on fire. Some commandos were killed, and the remainder escaped to Jordan.

From the American Colony, the paratroopers moved towards the Old City. Their plan was to approach it via the lightly defended Salah al-Din Street.

However, they made a wrong turn onto the heavily defended Nablus Road. The Israelis ran into fierce resistance.

Their tanks fired at point-blank range down the street, while the paratroopers mounted repeated charges. Despite repelling repeated Israeli charges, the Jordanians gradually gave way to Israeli firepower and momentum.

The Israelis suffered some 30 casualties — half the original force — while the Jordanians lost 45 dead and wounded. Meanwhile, the Israeli 71st Battalion breached barbed wire and minefields and emerged near Wadi Joz, near the base of Mount Scopus, from where the Old City could be cut off from Jericho and East Jerusalem from Ramallah.

Israeli artillery targeted the one remaining route from Jerusalem to the West Bank, and shellfire deterred the Jordanians from counterattacking from their positions at Augusta-Victoria.

An Israeli detachment then captured the Rockefeller Museum after a brief skirmish. Afterwards, the Israelis broke through to the Jerusalem-Ramallah road.

The Jordanians stalled the advance and destroyed a number of half-tracks, but the Israelis launched air attacks and exploited the vulnerability of the external fuel tanks mounted on the Jordanian tanks.

The Jordanians lost half their tanks, and retreated towards Jericho. Joining up with the 4th Brigade, the Israelis then descended through Shuafat and the site of what is now French Hill , through Jordanian defenses at Mivtar, emerging at Ammunition Hill.

With Jordanian defenses in Jerusalem crumbling, elements of the Jordanian 60th Brigade and an infantry battalion were sent from Jericho to reinforce Jerusalem.

Its original orders were to repel the Israelis from the Latrun corridor, but due to the worsening situation in Jerusalem, the brigade was ordered to proceed to Jerusalem's Arab suburbs and attack Mount Scopus.

Parallel to the brigade were infantrymen from the Imam Ali Brigade, who were approaching Issawiya. The brigades were spotted by Israeli aircraft and decimated by rocket and cannon fire.

Other Jordanian attempts to reinforce Jerusalem were beaten back, either by armoured ambushes or airstrikes. Fearing damage to holy sites and the prospect of having to fight in built-up areas, Dayan ordered his troops not to enter the Old City.

Privately, he told David Ben-Gurion that he was also concerned over the prospect of Israel capturing Jerusalem's holy sites, only to be forced to give them up under the threat of international sanctions.

Israel was to gain almost total control of the West Bank by the evening of 7 June, [] and began its military occupation of the West Bank on that day, issuing a military order, the "Proclamation Regarding Law and Administration The West Bank Area No.

The situation on the West Bank is rapidly deteriorating. A concentrated attack has been launched on all axes, together with heavy fire, day and night.

Jordanian, Syrian and Iraqi air forces in position H3 have been virtually destroyed. Upon consultation with King Hussein I have been asked to convey to you the following choices:.

An Egyptian order for Jordanian forces to withdraw across the Jordan River was issued at 10am on June 6; however that afternoon King Hussein learned of the impending United Nations Security Council Resolution and decided instead to hold out in the hope that a ceasefire would be implemented soon.

It was already too late, as the counter-order caused confusion and in many cases it was not possible to regain positions which had previously been left.

On 7 June, Dayan had ordered his troops not to enter the Old City; however, upon hearing that the UN was about to declare a ceasefire, he changed his mind, and without cabinet clearance, decided to capture it.

One battalion attacked from Mount Scopus, and another attacked from the valley between it and the Old City. Another paratroop battalion, personally led by Gur, broke into the Old City, and was joined by the other two battalions after their missions were complete.

The paratroopers met little resistance. The fighting was conducted solely by the paratroopers; the Israelis did not use armour during the battle out of fear of severe damage to the Old City.

In the north, one battalion from Peled's division was sent to check Jordanian defenses in the Jordan Valley. A brigade belonging to Peled's division captured the western part of the West Bank.

One brigade attacked Jordanian artillery positions around Jenin , which were shelling Ramat David Airbase.

The Jordanian 12th Armored Battalion, which outnumbered the Israelis, held off repeated attempts to capture Jenin. However, Israeli air attacks took their toll, and the Jordanian M48 Pattons , with their external fuel tanks, proved vulnerable at short distances, even to the Israeli-modified Shermans.

Twelve Jordanian tanks were destroyed, and only six remained operational. Just after dusk, Israeli reinforcements arrived. The Jordanians continued to fiercely resist, and the Israelis were unable to advance without artillery and air support.

One Israeli jet attacked the Jordanian commander's tank, wounding him and killing his radio operator and intelligence officer.

The surviving Jordanian forces then withdrew to Jenin, where they were reinforced by the 25th Infantry Brigade. The Jordanians were effectively surrounded in Jenin.

The Jordanian tanks charged, and knocked out multiple Israeli vehicles, and the tide began to shift. After sunrise, Israeli jets and artillery conducted a two-hour bombardment against the Jordanians.

The Jordanians lost 10 dead and wounded, and had only seven tanks left, including two without gas, and sixteen APCs.

The Israelis then fought their way into Jenin, and captured the city after fierce fighting. After the Old City fell, the Jerusalem Brigade reinforced the paratroopers, and continued to the south, capturing Judea and Gush Etzion.

Hebron was taken without any resistance. Fearful that Israeli soldiers would exact retribution for the massacre of the city's Jewish community, Hebron's residents flew white sheets from their windows and rooftops, and voluntarily gave up their weapons.

On 7 June, Israeli forces seized Bethlehem , taking the city after a brief battle that left some 40 Jordanian soldiers dead, with the remainder fleeing.

On the same day, one of Peled's brigades seized Nablus ; then it joined one of Central Command's armoured brigades to fight the Jordanian forces; as the Jordanians held the advantage of superior equipment and were equal in numbers to the Israelis.

Again, the air superiority of the IAF proved paramount as it immobilized the Jordanians, leading to their defeat. One of Peled's brigades joined with its Central Command counterparts coming from Ramallah, and the remaining two blocked the Jordan river crossings together with the Central Command's 10th.

Engineering Corps sappers blew up the Abdullah and Hussein bridges with captured Jordanian mortar shells, while elements of the Harel Brigade crossed the river and occupied positions along the east bank to cover them, but quickly pulled back due to American pressure.

The Jordanians, anticipating an Israeli offensive deep into Jordan, assembled the remnants of their army and Iraqi units in Jordan to protect the western approaches to Amman and the southern slopes of the Golan Heights.

As Israel continued its offensive on 7 June, taking no account of the UN ceasefire resolution, the Egyptian-Jordanian command ordered a full Jordanian withdrawal for the second time, in order to avoid an annihilation of the Jordanian army.

After the Old City was captured, Dayan told his troops to "dig in" to hold it. When an armoured brigade commander entered the West Bank on his own initiative, and stated that he could see Jericho , Dayan ordered him back.

It was only after intelligence reports indicated that Hussein had withdrawn his forces across the Jordan River that Dayan ordered his troops to capture the West Bank.

Vintage photographs are a great collectible. For those collecting certain interests you can most likely find a vintage press photo in our collection from that subject and add to your collection.

A moment in history is a great addition to any collection. An original photos is a great wall decor, an original piece of history in your home or your office.

We also recommend two sided glass frames for display on tables, as you can then see the back of the photo also.

The back of the photo has sometimes stamps, writing and text that makes the photo even more historical and unique. In what town did grandpa grow up?

Photographs that have been locked away in a newspaper archive for decades and are now for the first time available to the public are the perfect gift.

There is only one copy of each so each image is totally unique. Each image contains original stamps, scribble from journalist and captions making the photo very authentic and historic.

A moment in history as a gift. Search for a subjects that fits the person you are giving or find just a beautiful photo to enjoy.

A vintage photograph is suitable for all occasions whether its a christmas gift, valentines, fathers day, mothers or just as a surprise gift to make someone's day.

Many predict that the price and value of vintage photographs will increase in the future and might be the next valuable paintings of our times.

Vintage press photographs are certainly not growing in numbers as they stopped making them 30 years ago. Many have been lost in fires or water damages already.

Take good care of your vintage photograph as it might be very valuable in the future. One of the best reasons to on a vintage photograph is to enjoy the moment, the moment in history when the photo was taken.

From the times when you could not snap as many frames you wanted, and just delete and upload. From the times you maybe only had one shot, and could not see the image until days later after developing it.

Its from these times when the moments are so much more precious and not mention more rare as the more years we go back in history, fewer and fewer images are of moments and events that exist.

We are selling these photos as collectibles only and no copyright is implied. We sell to clients all over the world and each items are shipped in strong cardboard envelope to ensure safe delivery and wrapped in plastic sheet.

Please contact us if you would like to make a bank transfer. Please note that you do not need to have a PayPal account to pay using PayPal, just a valid debit or credit card.

We are based both in Iceland and in Latvia. Frame it or give it in a nice box! Contact us about information regarding frames and boxes for the original photos.

We sell, frames, glass boxes and filt boxes.

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